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A Century of Salvador Dali

The man. The master. The marvel. Salvador Dali is one of the most celebrated artists of all time. His fiercely technical yet highly unusual paintings, sculptures and visionary explorations in film and life-size interactive art ushered in a new generation of imaginative expression. From his personal life to his professional endeavors, he always took great risks and proved how rich the world can be when you dare to embrace pure, boundless creativity.

Discover the life and legend of Salvador Dali, and get to know the people, places and events that transformed this Spanish son into a surrealist sensation.

The Surreal Journey Begins

Salvador Dali was born on May 11, 1904 to parents Salvador Dali Cusi, a prominent notary, and Felipa Domenech Ferres, a gentle mother who often indulged young Salvador’s eccentric behavior. Felipa was a devout Catholic and the elder Salvador an Atheist, which was a combination that heavily influenced their son’s worldview. Dali’s artistic talent was obvious from a young age, and both of his parents supported it—though it is known that the relationship with his disciplinarian father was strained. Ultimately, Dali’s raw creativity and defiant attitude would distance him from his father, but it would also become the cornerstone of his wildly imaginative artistic feats.

Surreal Fact

In 1903, Horatio Jackson made the first automobile trip across America. It took him 64 full days to drive from San Francisco to NYC.

Budding Brilliance

Dali’s father quickly realized that his son wasn’t fit for public school, so he enrolled 6-year-old Salvador in the Hispano-French School of the Immaculate Conception where he learned French, the primary language he would later use as an artist. Dali spent his childhood and early adolescence in Catalonia—school years in Figueres and breaks in the coastal village of Cadaques where his family had a summer home. There, he drew and painted the seaside landscape and met his early mentor Ramon Pichot. Cadaques is also where Dali’s parents built him his first art studio.

Surreal Fact

In 1911, the Mona Lisa was stolen from the Louvre in Paris. It took two years to recover Leonardo da Vinci's missing masterpiece.

School Is Out. Surrealism Is In.

Dali’s tumultuous 1920s life perfectly reflected the decade’s “roaring” nickname. Four years after being accepted to the San Fernando Academy of Art in Madrid, he was expelled after refusing to be examined in the theory of art and declaring the examiners incompetent to judge him. He experimented with futurism, impressionism and cubism, and during one of his several trips to Paris, movement leader Andre Breton exposed him to the world of Surrealism. In 1925, Dali had his first solo exhibition in Barcelona, and the decade saw his works showcased throughout the world. After leaving the Academy, Dali returned to Catalonia where his art became increasingly bizarre and even grotesque.

Surreal Fact

In 1925, a diphtheria outbreak in rural Alaska prompted 18 dog-sled teams to travel 674 miles to bring medicine to those in need. The Iditarod commemorates this trek every year.

Trials, Trouble and Travel

The thirties watched Dali transform from a key figure in the Surrealist movement into its enemy. After becoming a prominent figure of the group, he was nearly expelled after a “trial” in 1934. His dismissal was due to his apolitical stance, his personal feud with leader Andre Breton, and his public antics. In July 1936, the Spanish Civil War started and Dali and his wife remained in Paris, where he continued evolving his artistic style. He was heavily influenced by the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud, whom Dali met in 1938. In 1939 Andre Breton definitively expelled Dali from Surrealism.

Surreal Fact

When Betty Boop made her cartoon debut in 1930, her character was actually a dog and not a woman.

Inspiring Awe In America

Dali and Gala spent the better part of the 1940s in America after fleeing WWII. During the couple’s eight years stateside, New York’s MOMA gallery presented the artist’s first retrospective and he explored new creative expressions on film. He teamed up with Alfred Hitchcock to create dream-like sequences for Spellbound and was later hired by Walt Disney to complete the art and storyboards for what would ultimately become the film Destino. At the very end of the decade and from the comfort of this homeland Catalonia, Dali entered his noteworthy classical period.

Surreal Fact

Naval engineer Richard James invented the Slinky toy by accident when he was trying to build a ship horsepower monitor using steel tension springs during WWII.

Mystical Measures

Salvador Dali was in the heart of his classical period throughout the 1950s. He created nineteen large canvases characterized by meticulously detailed images of religious, historical and scientific themes, or what Dali called “nuclear mysticism.” He became obsessed with geometry, DNA, divinity and experimented heavily with visual illusions. From a personal perspective, his growing affinity for religious themes prompted he and Gala, his muse and the love of his life, to remarry—this time, in a Catholic church.

Surreal Fact

The C.I.A. secretly funded and revised the 1954 animated film version of George Orwell’s allegorical novel Animal Farm.

An Icon In Every Dimension

From awe-inspiring works to distinctively high praise, Dali continued breaking boundaries throughout the sixties. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, one of Spain’s highest distinctions and began work on what would become the Teatro-Museo Dali (The Dali Theatre-Museum) in his hometown of Figueres All the while, Dali’s deepening interests in space and science were powerfully reflected in his work. He strived to explore and challenge what was possible in the third dimension, and became fascinated with the fourth, or immortality.

Surreal Fact

In 1962, three incarcerated criminals attempted to escape Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary on an inflatable raft. It is still unknown whether they were successful or died in the act.

Evolving Perspectives

Even as he aged and his health began to decline, Salvador Dali remained resilient in his artistic quest to examine life from every possible angle. He continued to paint—endlessly challenging visual norms with holographic and stereoscopic imagery—all the while dedicating much of his time to opening the Teatro-Museo Dali, which still sits just a few blocks away from his birthplace. Moreover, Dali remained a prominent public figure and celebrity with retrospectives exhibiting all over the world.

Surreal Fact

The world’s first gourmet jelly bean brand (later dubbed Jelly Belly) debuted in 1975 with unusual flavors like licorice, root beer, cream soda and tangerine.

Death Or Immortality?

In the last years of his life, and following the death of his dear wife Gala, Dali painted less and less. Still fascinated by the ideas of immortality and the fourth dimension, his last works were mathematical in nature—challenging the plasticity of life as we know it. In 1984, Dali was severely injured in a house fire at his Pubol castle and was confined to a wheelchair for the remainder of his life. Friends, followers and fellow artists then moved him back to Figueres to live at the Teatro-Museo where he died of heart failure on January 23, 1989 at the age of 84.

Surreal Fact

In 1985, denture manufacturers stopped using radioactive uranium in their porcelain. The toxic material was added for decades to give false teeth a natural look.

Living On Through Imagination

Even after death, Salvador Dali’s star didn’t fade. In 1990, his estate was split between Madrid and Catalonia, and many prominent exhibitions of the artist’s work continued to show throughout the world. From Montreal, London and Spain to Tokyo, Venice and the United States, Dali’s indescribable talent and extraordinary creativity has become a universal language of fearlessness, inspiration and relentless self-expression. The Dali Museum continues to honor the work and memory of its namesake with an expansive permanent collection, educational programming and world-class exhibits featuring other notable artists, including Andy Warhol and Pablo Picasso.

Surreal Fact

Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned, was born in 1996 and lived for six and a half years.

A Century of Salvador Dali was inspired by Jackson Willis's interactive timeline presentation.
Plaza de la palmera historia (photograph) //cloud1.todocoleccion.net/tc/2010/03/17/18165194.jpg, //cloud1.todocoleccion.net/, photographer unknown , March 10, 2010
Dali as a child //marinacasado.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/2014-01-23-15-03-46.jpg, //marinacasado.files.wordpress.com/ Salvador Dali , Photographer unknown, January/1/2014
Dali as a child waving https://enlenguapropia.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/dalc3ad-de-nic3b1o.jpg, https://enlenguapropia.wordpress.com, Salvador Dali as a child, Photographer Unknown, January
Ana Maria //www.wikiart.org, //www.wikiart.org/en/salvador-dali/ana-maria, Ana Maria, Salvador Dali, Post date unknown
Landscape Near Figueras //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landscape_Near_Figueras, Landscape Near Figueras, Salvador Dali, 1910, Uploaded Dec 16, 2013
Young Dali with Josep Pichot //www.encesa.cat/imatges-pendents-david-garcia-algilaga, Josep Pichot and young Salvador Dali. C. 1912. Photographer unknown.
Background of French building Photographer unknown, Upload date unknown
Teatro-can’t source Photographer unknown, Upload date unknown
Dali’s mother, Felipa Domenech Ferres, 1010 //www.salvador-dali.org/media/upload/gif/cache/0514_editora_78_21_1_10201020.JPG, //www.salvador-dali.org/, Felipa Domenech Ferres, Photographer Unknown, Post date unknown
Dali School ID //www.neatorama.com/2007/01/11/salvador-dalis-student-id-card, //www.neatorama.com, Salvador School ID, January 1, 2011
Dali Louvre comic La Vie de Salvador Dali, illustration by Jean-Michel Renault, text by Robert Descharnes and Jeanine Nevers
The Basket of Bread //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Basket_of_Bread, Salvador Dali, 1926, Uploaded Dec 17, 2013
Dali and Gala relaxing //www.salvador-dali.org/media/upload/gif/cache/4206_pag_108_3_240.jpg , //www.salvador-dali.org/dali/en_bio-gala/, Unknown Photographer
Un Chien Andalou (film) //www.cinematheia.com/un-chien-andalou-1928-by-luis-bunuel-and-salvador-dali/ , //www.cinematheia.com/, Un Chien Andalou, Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali, February 7, 2013
Persistence of Memory //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Persistence_of_Memory , //en.wikipedia.org/, The Persistence of Memory, Gala-Salvador Dali Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), Photo taken in 2004
Rainy Taxi //studydroid.com/printerFriendlyViewPack.php?packId=75265, Salvador Dali, 1938. Photographer unknown.
Rainy Taxi //artplastoc.blogspot.com/2013/11/172-la-nourriture-dans-lart.html, Salvador Dali, 1930. Photographer unknown.
Dali and Gala leaning on pillar //2.bp.blogspot.com/-vq7gWXwBX7g/Uu1xw4zTGrI/AAAAAAAAYZw/zOZAxAX3yBQ/s1600/Gala+y+Salvador+Dal%C3%AD.jpg, //laimagendelsiglo.blogspot.com/, With Gala, Man Ray, February 1, 2014
Photograph of Dali in his diving suit //www.flashpointmag.com/Surr_Exhibit_Dali_1.jpg, //www.flashpointmag.com/, Salvador Dali in his diving suit International Surrealist Exhibition, London 1936, Photographer Unknown, Post Date Unknown
Lobster phone //mysticmedusa.com/2010/04/dali-retrograde/, //mysticmedusa.com/, Aphrodisiac Telephone, Image posted April 22, 2010
Portrait inside of spiny theatrical fish skull //www.brooklynrail.org/2003/11/artseen/salvador-dals-dream-of-venus, //www.brooklynrail.org/article_image/image/8885/long-web1.jpg, Salvador Dali, November 1, 2003
Spider of the evening //uploads5.wikiart.org/images/salvador-dali/spider-of-the-evening.jpg, //www.wikiart.org/, Spider of the evening, Salvador Dali, Post date unknown
The Madonna of Port Ligat //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d3/The_Madonna_of_Port_Lligat.jpg, //upload.wikimedia.org/, Salvador Dali,The Madonna of Port Ligat, Posted January, 2010
The Secret Life of Salvador Dali (Book) //www.icollector.com/The-Secret-Life-of-Salvador-Dali-presentation-copy-inscribed-hand-drawn-portrait-by-Salvador-Dali_i11535439, //media.liveauctiongroup.net/i/11189/11535439_2.jpg?v=8CE82E41B749C40, Salvador Dali, December 15, 2011
Photo of Dali with A. Reynolds Morse, and Eleanor Morse https://www.pinterest.com/sweetpeamoon/art-salvador-dali/, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/420031102718306443/, Photographer Unknown, Post date unknown
Photo of Dali and Gala on sofa //www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE043542/salvador-dali-and-gala-eluard-in-dalis, //www.corbisimages.com, Photographer unknown, Post date unknown
Dali with his parents //ep00.epimg.net/ccaa/imagenes/2012/06/23/catalunya/1340476221_006414_1340476536_noticia_normal.jpg, //ccaa.elpais.com/ccaa/, Photographer Unknown, Posted June 24, 2012
Manifest Mystique //leonardfoxltd.wordpress.com/2014/02/10/manifeste-mystique-dali-1951/, //leonardfoxltd.wordpress.com, Manifest Mystique, Salvador Dali, February 2, 2010
Sacred heart //media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/92/f6/e8/92f6e83729473f1e10100a5d1d8e746c.jpg, https://www.pinterest.com/, Salvador Dali, Post date unknown
Dali Museum, Spain //www.hikenow.net/Spain/SalvadorDaliFiguere.html, //www.hikenow.net/images/SalvadorDali/img/FigueresDaliMuseum1.JPG, Dali Museum, Spain, Photographer unknown, Upload Date Unknown
Dali and Gala dining //www.europaeische-kultur-stiftung.org/inhalt/morse-english.html, //www.europaeische-kultur-stiftung.org/inhalt/chateaumadridgross.jpg, Photographer Unknown, Date Posted Unknown
Painting, forms of Venus and toreador //en.wikipedia.org/, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cc/The_Hallucinogenic_Toreador.png, Salvador Dali, Posted on November, 29, 2011
Old Dali Museum //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Dali_Museum, //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Dali_Museum#mediaviewer/File:St._Pete_Dali_Museum06.jpg, Uploaded by Ebyabe, Posted June 22, 2011
Salvador Dali Museum in Figueras //topworth.blogspot.com/2011/04/salvador-dali-museum-in-figueres.html, //2.bp.blogspot.com/-FVEyzf7ITyw/TbHGb9grjwI/AAAAAAAAEYU/ViB9gP9vUk0/s1600/006.jpg, Salvador Dali Museum in Figueras, Post date unknown
Lincoln in Dalivision //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_in_Dalivision, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4c/Lincoln_in_Dalivision%2C_Salvador_Dali_Lincoln_in_Dalivision_Print%2C_Lincoln_in_Dalivision.jpg, Lincoln in Dalivision, Uploaded August 25, 2012
Old Dali Museum Blue sky //www.stpete.org/images/011100.jpg The Dali Museum, St. Petersburg c. 2000.
The Swallow’s tail //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/22/The_Swallowtail.jpg, //en.wikipedia.org/, Salvador Dali, Posted April 2, 2013
Dali And Gala //www.spletnik.ru/, //www.begonyaplaza.com/begonya_plaza/images/2008/04/11/salvador_dali_and_gala.jpg, Photographer Unknown, Posted April 4, 2011
Honorary Awards Photographer unknown, Upload date unknown
Deoxyribonucleic acid //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galacidalacidesoxyribonucleicacid#mediaviewer/File:Galacidalacidesoxyribonucleicacid.jpg, //en.wikipedia.org, Salvador Dali, Galacidalacideoxyribonucleicacid, February 3, 2011
The First Days of Spring //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/03/The_First_Days_of_Spring.jpg, //upload.wikimedia.org, The First Day of Spring, Salvador Dali, Posted October 11, 2007
Castel Pubol //www.world-insider.com/a-magical-hotel-close-to-barcelona/, Castel Pubol, 2013.
Painting of dead brother //www.wikiart.org/en/salvador-dali/portrait-of-my-dead-brother-1963, //www.wikiart.org, Portrait of my dead brother, Salvador Dali, Post date unknown
New Museum spiral staircase //im.ft-static.com/content/images/e368c120-4d6a-11e1-bb6c-00144feabdc0.img, //www.ft.com/, Salvador Dali Museum St. Petersburg, Photographer unknown, Posted February 3, 2012
Large photo of museum with abstract glass. //3.bp.blogspot.com/_5pw-UhfU748/TPUMYmZsYdI/AAAAAAAAME8/D-JGj2YlGY4/s1600/1+Dali+Boulevard.JPG, //stephenking.com/community/archive/, Photographer Unknown, March 31, 2013
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